Along with the cataract, trepanation can be counted as the earliest human attempt at surgery. Trepanation was basically drilling a hole in the skull of a person and leaving it exposed to the elements. Given the fact that this practice was common in a variety of cultures and its ancient roots, there is no clear agreement about the precise ailment this treatment was meant to cure. However, it is possible that trepanning was a common treatment for ailments including epilepsy and headaches.
5. Herbal anesthetics
Surgery was not the go-to procedure in middle ages owing to the unbearable pain caused by rough instruments. To overcome this, several concoctions were tried to act as anesthetics, many of which were lethal in nature. One of the most widely used ingredient was hemlock juice which was noted for its somatic effects. However, even a slight overdose of this ingredient would have been enough to make a patient stop breathing in his sleep.